Acne: Causes, Types, Prevention, Treatment

Acne is one of the most common skin diseases that almost everyone has encountered in different periods of lives.


So, the most common cause of acne on the face is a hormonal change of the body. The teenage period is the most vivid example of this skin disease. This is the period of the highest activity of hormones. Hormonal changes happen inside the body which results are a coarse voice, changing body proportions and pimples. Few people manage to evade this disorder. Even if a teenager is growing up with the normal hormonal level, the skin is quite thin and problem-free, it is impossible to pass the puberty without a single pimple. They will certainly appear, albeit in a small amount.

Similar work of hormonal glands also occurs in women during pregnancy and a certain phase of the menstrual cycle (and this can also be accompanied in some cases of acne) or with certain endocrine problems in adults. Even newborns may have conditions accompanied by acne. They also have a hormonal nature, even a separate name – hormonal crisis. In addition, some medications, work specifics, environment condition can all become a pathogenic factor in acne.Acne Guideline

Types of acne

Actually, the word “pimple” is not quite a medical term. Specialists distinguish the following types of acne:

  • comedones. This is not even a pimple, but its initial form or the so-called white pimple. Comedone is a sebaceous plug that has clogged the pore, the cause of future inflammation. In everyday life, comedones are also called blackheads. Black is a sign of oxidized sebum on the surface of the comedones. If the cork formed in the upper part of the pore, it is known as an open comedone. It is manifested by an easily removable tubercle filled with liquid. Closed comedones, respectively, are localized more deeply in the pore. On the skin, it appears as a dense white ball known as wen. If an infection gets into such a comedone, then a papule develops.
  • papule. This is a full-fledged pimple. It is inflamed causing pain during palpation. Its color can vary from red to cyanotic. When pressed, it turns pale, then again it is filled with blood.
  • cystic acne. The severe form of pustules, which are no longer single, but form conglomerates that penetrate deep into the dermis. They are connected by fistulous ducts. They are quite painful. They require serious systemic treatment.
  • acne fulminans. The most severe form of acne is accompanied not only by extensive areas of acne, but also by hyperthermia, muscle and bone pain, and a change in the white blood cell count. Such a problem requires immediate medical attention.

There are four degrees of severity of acne. They are distinguished depending on the type of pimples:

  • first degree. One area of the face is affected (e.g. forehead or the chin). Rashes in the form of comedones, occasionally papules and pustules.
  • second degree. It differs from the first degree in the number of rashes – a large surface of the face is affected. There is acne on the body. The qualitative composition of acne is the same as for a first-degree: comedones, single papules and pustules.
  • third degree. In addition to comedones, there are a lot of papules and pustules, the inflammatory process is expressed, hyperemia (redness, itching) of the skin is possible. There are traces of acne.
  • fourth degree. Spherical acne of large size (more than 5 millimeters) and bluish-red color penetrate deep into the layers of the dermis and leave deep atrophic scars.

Prevention and control of acne

Speaking about the prevention of acne, specialists mean the first two mild degrees of acne. In no case do not try to independently fight furuncles, nodular-cystic or fulminant acne. This can be fraught not only with severe skin problems but also with sepsis in, especially severe cases.

However, when it comes to mild acne, the treatment includes the prevention of the disease which can be independent. Of course, this should be done correctly, because any irritation of acne will result in their proliferation. Beauticians categorically prohibit any unprofessional treatment of acne or comedones. It can lead to the formation of new, more complex acne, as well as to the formation of atrophic scars, the fight with which is much more difficult than with the light stages of acne. Mild stages of acne can be cured without consequences for the skin condition. In general, experts recommend:

  • follow nutrition plan during the period of the highest activity of the sebaceous glands. You’d better exclude fatty, sweet foods rich in simple carbohydrates;
  • pay more attention to face and hand hygiene. This will contribute, if not to the complete disappearance of acne, then at least their non-proliferation due to external factors;
  • regularly use antiseptic masks and creams that protect the pores from the penetration of dirt and dust particles, bacteria, which, in fact, trigger the inflammatory process.

Medicamentous treatment for acne

There have been many folk and pharmacological drugs that deal with acne with varying degrees of success. First of all, it is recommended to visit a doctor to establish the right cause of acne. Have not enough time, use online consultations like – They will assess your condition and prescribe therapy.

Pharmaceutical preparations of antiseptic and antibacterial action are used externally. Adsorbents act in another way through the gastrointestinal tract. Hormone-regulating agents can be used in the form of ointments, tablets or capsules.

The use of ointments and gels can be accompanied by the intake of vitamin complexes and special nutrition for the skin. During the treatment period, much attention should be paid to daily face care. Oily skin does not mean hydrated. Suspensions and creams can dry the skin, peeling and itching become an additional factor in its irritation and infection. Regular disinfection kills not only pathogenic but also skin protective flora, making it vulnerable. All this must be taken into account when starting treatment with creams and ointments for acne.

It is recommended to use antibacterial and hormonal drugs, the treatment of which should be carried out under the supervision of a doctor. Before therapy, most likely, it will be necessary to undergo various studies and tests.

It is impossible to remove atrophic scars with pharmacological agents. This problem is eliminated only in cosmetology rooms with the help of a laser and other means of hardware cosmetology.