Aralen (Chloroquine)

Aralen (Chloroquine) is an anti-malaria drug. It also has an immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory effect. It causes the death of asexual erythrocyte forms of all types of plasmodia. It has a gametocidal effect, with the exception of Plasmodium falciparum (exhibits an anti-gametocidal effect).

Indications

  • Malaria (prevention and treatment of all types);
  • Extraintestinal amoebiasis;
  • Amoebic liver abscess;
  • The systemic lupus erythematosus (chronic and subacute forms);
  • Rheumatoid arthritis;
  • Scleroderma;
  • Photodermatosis.

Dosage regimen

  • Oral administration. for the prevention of malaria – 0.5 g in the first week 2 times, then 1 time always on the same day of the week.
  • The treatment of malaria is carried out according to the following scheme: 1 day once 1 g, after 6-8 hours – 0.5 g, on days 2 and 3 of treatment – 0.75 g daily in one dose.
  • Amoebiasis, 0.5 g 3 times/day for 7 days, then 0.25 g 3 times/day for another 7 days, then 0.75 g 2 times a week for 2-6 months.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis – 0.5 g 2 times/day for 7 days, then – 0.5 g daily for 12 months.
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus – daily, 0.25-0.5 g.
  • Photodermatosis, 0.25 g daily for a week, then 0.5-0.75 g weekly.

Side effects

  • Digestive system: nausea, vomiting, gastralgia.
  • Nervous system: dizziness, headache, sleep disturbances, psychoses, epileptic seizures.
  • Cardiovascular system: myocardial damage with changes in the ECG, decreased blood pressure.
  • Sensory organs: with prolonged use – clouding of the cornea, damage to the retina, impaired vision, ringing in the ears.
  • Allergic reactions: dermatitis, photosensitivity.
  • Other: myalgia, leukopenia, discoloration of the skin and hair.

Contraindications

  • Hypersensitivity;
  • Liver failure;
  • Renal failure;
  • Inhibition of bone marrow hematopoiesis;
  • Severe rhythm disturbances;
  • Psoriatic arthritis;
  • Neutropenia;
  • Porphyrinuria;
  • Pregnancy;
  • Lactation.

Aralen (Chloroquine) is taken with caution in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, retinopathy, epilepsy.

Pregnancy and lactation

Aralen is contraindicated during pregnancy and lactation.

Overdose

Symptoms: vomiting, impaired consciousness, impaired vision, convulsions, collapse, respiratory depression ending to death.

Treatment: vomiting, gastric lavage, ingestion of activated charcoal in a dose 5 times the expected dose of chloroquine; peritoneal dialysis, plasmapheresis.

Drug interaction

  • Co-administration with phenylbutazone, gold preparations, penicillamine, cytostatics, levamisole increases the likelihood of bone marrow aplasia and skin lesions.
  • Antacids disrupt absorption, cimetidine increases the drug concentration in the blood.
  • The combination with other antimalarial drugs may be accompanied by an antagonistic effect.
  • When combined with glucocorticosteroids, the risk of developing myopathy and cardiomyopathy increases, with MAO inhibitors, the risk of developing neurotoxicity increases, with ethanol – hepatotoxicity, with cardiac glycosides – glycosidic intoxication increases.

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